Journalism and Commercialism: A Love Affair
Journalism and Commercialism: A Love Affair
by Aya Abitbul
As the fourth fiscal quarter approaches, it marks nearly nine years Americans have spent recovering from the aftermath of Wall Street’s 2008 negligence, from the perilous matchbox of subprime mortgages, faulty loan ratings, and lax lending standards, which was detonated by the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy, and which exploded into the worst American financial crisis since the Great Depression. Though nearly every industry spent the past near-decade inching towards recovery, with employees yearning to get back into their routines of gilded 2006, some have paved new routes, creating jobs never before occupied in their industries, transforming and redefining their entire trade. The media industry is one, as journalists have found opportunity and reward applying their skills in a new kind of work: sponsored content.
Melanie Deziel is one such journalist. She earned a traditional editorial education, graduating in 2012 from the University of Connecticut with a Bachelor’s Degree in Journalism, and in 2013 from Syracuse’s Newhouse School of Public Communications with a Master’s Degree in Arts and Cultural Editing. But after graduation, she, like thousands of other post-grad Americans, faced the challenge of beginning a new career in the midst of the post-Great Recession economy. Unlike many other Master’s students headed for the ranks of high finance or the cradles of bureaucratic academia, Deziel was dedicated to a line of work that financially recovered slower than nearly any other: the media industry.
According to Pew Research Center, from 2007-2012 newsroom staffs across the country shrunk by fourteen-thousand six-hundred, while magazine writers were cut by thirty-five thousand. Over these years, the Tribune Co., owner of the Los Angeles Times, declared bankruptcy, the entire twenty-eight-person photography staff at the Chicago Sun-Times was laid off, and the largest circulating daily in New Jersey, the Star-Ledger, paid out 45% of its editorial team in 2013.
So as Deziel embarked on the media job market that same year, she reflects, “I was looking how to put my [investigative and editing] skills to use in a different industry or in another context. And that’s how I ended up on the brand-story telling side.”
“The Greatest Story Ever Told,” Sponsored by Netflix
“Brand-story telling,” or the practice of “helping advertisers tell better stories” according to Deziel’s definition, has seen a steady increase in the past five years since the recession. Essentially, brand story telling is when brands create advertisements in the form of news articles or stories that readers enjoy. Most often, this content is distributed on their own site’s blog, ultimately in order to bring awareness to their brand or to transform readers into customers. But once their ad budgets permit, some brands have also leveraged audiences of premier publications like the New York Times. These "articles" will often be written in the “voice” of the publication by either the brand or the publication’s own team, and laid out either in the paper or on the news site’s homepage alongside regular editorial content. Brand-sponsored content falls under a larger umbrella of “native advertising,” as the advertisements appear “native” to the environment in which they’re displayed.
Hired in 2013 by the Huffington Post, Deziel was one of the first journalists to experiment with the effectiveness of sponsored content, writing for brands like Nature Valley, Citi, and American Express in addition to regular editorial content.
Deziel was then recruited by the New York Times in 2014 to launch their sponsored content branch, building what is famously known today as T Brand Studio. Deziel explained that her team was comprised of journalists previously in the Times' editorial wing, and that it was “set up like a mini-newsroom” with the same goal as at HuffPost: “to help advertisers tell stories that live on nytimes.com, write in a way and create content in a way that would appeal to the New York Times' audience.”
There she wrote what became a pedagogical piece of sponsored content, titled “Women Inmates: Why the Male Model Doesn’t Work.” Commissioned by Netflix for their upcoming season of Orange is the New Black, Deziel used video, infographics, digital illustration, and text to describe the inequalities female prisoners faced in a system logistically designed for men. The piece climbed to the top 2% of all content viewed on the New York Times’ website in 2014, and won the Online Marketing and Media Award (OMMA) for Best Native Advertising Execution in 2014.
Advertorial in Disguise?
When asked about the difference between the infamous “advertorial” and brand-studio-created sponsored content, Deziel says, “I think there’s a lot of people who see them as the same thing, and in many cases they are.” She explains that advertorials are exclusively created by employees of the brand, where companies are “buying a full page ad and happen to fill it with words instead of pictures.”
According to a New York Times audience-traffic report, there’s a quantitative difference between the two, too. By the end of T Brand’s first year, the New York Times reported that there were 632% more visits to T Brand Studio-produced content than advertiser-produced content, and users spent 526% more time with the Studio’s pieces. On Facebook, T Brand content outperformed that of advertisers by 1,613%. According to the Times’ 2016 year-end reports to its investors, the T Brand campaigns generated 6% of all ad revenue from only 50 brands, which totaled $33.6 million—double the studio’s revenue earnings of 2014.
These stats may be intuitive. It's no wonder that New York Times-grade journalists are more equipped to tell strong stories than corporate employees and even age-old copy writers, because storytelling for the sake of storytelling, not selling, is precisely what they've always been trained to do. Sebastian Tomich, VP of T Brand Studios says, “This business is not easily replicable,” but “it’s something The New York Times can be the best at.”
This reconfiguration of journalistic talents inspired other publishers to jump on the sponsored-content bandwagon, too. Today, in addition to T Brand and HuffPost Brand studios, journalists have found work in the Washington Post’s WP Brand Studio, Conde Nast’s 23 Stories, and Forbes’ BrandVoice, among others.
It’s worth noting that financial incentives are not exclusive to publishers. Grace Gold, a freelance beauty journalist, believes that higher compensation for brand-sponsored content can provide a journalist with “the financial freedom to write the editorial stories you actually want to write, instead of cranking out a ton of low-paying editorial stories you don't feel very passionate about, just to pay your bills.”
What’s Left for the Watchdog
Unlike Deziel, not all are so welcoming to branded content in their papers.
Dr. David Weinberger, a senior researcher at Harvard’s Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society, asks, “Does it make the place better or worse?” He continues, “I’m fine with feisty advocacy marketing in which a company makes a claim as honestly as it can. I’d just be happier if the company posted it on their own site.” The biggest problem in sponsored content, he believes, is that “readers may mistake it for actual journalism if the label is too small or unclear. The wall can be too thin.”
Deziel emphasizes, however, that at the New York Times, the “wall” between branded and editorial content production involves two separate wings and “literally two separate elevator banks, one for editorial and one for business.”
“We don’t go each other’s floors, we don’t sit next to each other, we don’t talk to each other. There’s no mingling whatsoever” she says. “Most of the folks that I’ve seen with strong, visceral, anti-content reactions are usually coming from a place of not understanding that the editors don’t have anything to do with it.”
Still, this answer doesn’t satisfy Dr. Weinberger’s primary concern, that putting “partisan work that looks like journalism literally next to actual journalism” is ethically contentious, for “even when it is properly labeled as paid for by a company, the proximity of actual journalism can elevate the seriousness with which the paid content is taken.”
Indeed, a study conducted by the American Press Institute on graduates with a degree in journalism or communications found that 66% believe “sponsored content crosses ethical boundaries and will damage news organizations’ credibility.”
In “The Rest Is Advertising: Confessions of a Sponsored Content Writer” Jacob Silverman, who purposely wrote without a byline for the Atlantic’s Re:think Brand Studio, admits “It was money that got me into the sponsored content rack.” For the “glossiest” pieces, he explains, some advertisers are willing to pay up to four dollars a word.
Yet, Silverman is wary. He believes that “the line between what’s sponsored and what isn’t—between advertising and journalism—has already been rubbed away.”
Despite the media industry’s alleged cash flow problem, Silverman believes “the truth, after all, is that there is money in journalism. It’s just woefully misallocated.” While media companies are paying the highest salaries to in-house brand writers, Silverman reminds his readers that “a mass of freelancers—whose work is necessary to the functioning of many publications—cadge whatever assignments they can and don’t complain when the checks take six months to arrive.”
He concludes, “such is the anticlimax of sponsored content: it promises to know the future of news, but in the end, all it’s got is cash.”
But to Gold, this “cash” that the publications are refusing freelancers is exactly what makes sponsored content so promising. For the first time since the Recession, she explains, the media industry is taking care of those who actually construct it: the journalists. Gold explains that regardless of sponsored content’s ethical concerns, “when you see editorial pay rates nosedive in half or in quarter over a few years, and you see sponsored content rates only increase, your perception changes.”
Gold has some advice for the ethically-wary readers: “subscribe to publications like the New York Times, to support good old fashion journalism.” A testament to Deziel’s defense of the separate editorial and sponsored content wings of the Times, Gold says, “The New York Times does sponsored content, but you can see it doesn’t influence what the rest of the publication covers.”
The Rise of the Content Guru
After she set up shop at T Brand, Deziel transferred to Time Inc. as the Head of Creative Strategy. She then set out on her own, working now as a private consultant for brands looking to get their content strategies off the ground. She’s an educator in this fairly new world too, frequently traveling to teach content strategy workshops to corporate staffs. She spoke in 2016 at over sixty events to more than twelve-thousand people, according to her blog. She also launched a native advertising industry newsletter, The Overlap League, that offers news and strategy tips in the blossoming native ad world.
In an interview, Deziel asks, “imagine the impact and the benefits for readers, publishers and advertisers once some of these big brands are able to shift their mindset and can begin putting resources toward telling great stories that may not yet have been told?”
Perhaps we have yet to really see them.